D2.2 Impact of human-made hazards
This deliverable provides an overview on human-made hazards contribution to the malfunctioning of terrestrial transportation systems. A framework to evaluate the impacts of such event is proposed. The contribution of human-made hazard in the malfunctioning of the network is difficult to quantify but a rough estimation can be obtained from a bridge failure database, under construction by IABSE with more than 600 failure cases, where the causes of failure are clustered into natural hazards, human-made-hazards and human errors, each one representing respectively, 21%, 27% and 53% of the failures roots. For vulnerability assessment of the assets according to the uncertainties that encompass the problem, fragility curves are proposed due to its beneficial features and adequate use for the assessment of structures subject to extreme loading conditions. Insights for the characterization of structural resistance and loading conditions are provided, being the last one addressed with more detail by means of impact force, since the ship, vehicle and train collisions represent more than 50% of the failures triggered by human-made hazards. The impacts evaluation is gathered in four major groups, specifically: human, economic, environmental and political/social impacts. The available possibilities for the monetization of the impacts were considered, in order to explore the possibility of using a unique unit of measurement for quantification of the impacts. An organized framework, with some level of detail, for further characterization or forecast of human-made hazards impact in real case scenarios, is the main outcome of this deliverable.