InD2.1- GIS Map and identification of hot spots
of sudden extreme natural hazard
events, including database with impact
and return periods
The main Objective of this deliverable is to identify risk factors, mainly with regard to natural hazards. The identification encompasses identification of critical natural hazard (Section 2), review of natural hazard maps at European level (Section 3) and review of natural hazard maps at National or regional level for the Pilot areas (Section 4).
The first step was to identify the critical natural hazards, i.e. sudden natural extreme events leading to malfunctioning of terrestrial transport networks in Europe. Further, modes of malfunctioning of the infrastructure caused by each one of these events were described. The identification of critical hazards and failure modes was performed from a generic point of view, as well as specific for the Pilot areas. The generic approach considered all plausible failure modes with a natural extreme event trigger for roads and railways, and is based on a literature review and a review of results from previous EU projects, and considers the vulnerability and resilience of terrestrial transport systems. The specific approach for Pilot areas has considered the most important triggers and failure modes for Pilot areas. This assessment was performed by the infrastructure owners (Ferrovial, Infrastructure Portugal and Network Rail):
- Portugal: Natural weather related events with the greatest impact on road and rail transportation in the case study area of Portugal are forest fires and floods.
- Spain: Natural hazards that have had the greatest impacts in the Spanish case studies of the Mediterranean corridor (case study 2a in Murcia Region and case study 2b in Malaga region) are flooding, landslides, earthquakes, heavy rain and hot/cold waves.
- UK: Compensation payments for the London North-West (LNW) Route clearly shows that wind, flooding and snow-related events have had the most significant impact.
The next step was to assess the likelihood of natural events. This is done by providing an overview of available inventories, databases and GIS maps of natural hazards at European level and at National level for the Pilot areas. Downloadable data at European level includes:
- Flood hazard maps and catalogues
- Wild fire catalogues
- Hazard maps related to wind and temperature (heat)
- Landslide hazard maps
- Earthquake hazard maps and catalogues
In addition, other available information on European maps of weather related hazards for current and future climate has been reviewed and summarised. Further, a brief overview of European dynamic hazard maps used for monitoring and forecasting has been provided.
For countries with Pilot areas, information about the following hazard types has been reviewed and described:
- Portugal: Wild fires and flood
- Spain: Flood, heatwaves (and wild fires)
- UK: Flood and wind